Archaeological data dating patriarchs
Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean.The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.Edom is characterized by 2 major geomorphologic units, the highland plateau and the lowlands that border Wadi Arabah.Before our project, most IA excavations were carried out on the highland plateau, largely ignoring the copper ore-rich Edom lowlands.It was initially sampled by the German Mining Museum (GMM) in the early 1990s (14).In 2002, we excavated the fortress gatehouse (Area A), a building devoted to copper slag processing (Area S), and ≈1.2 m of the upper part of a slag mound (Area M) by using stratigraphic methods. These dates confirmed the radiocarbon dates published earlier by the GMM (17). BCE, the stratified excavations in the lowlands of Edom provided an objective dating technique that linked this metal production center with the period of the early Israelite kings and their neighbors mentioned in the HB. BCE portion of this Levantine chronology is known as the IA IIa, a highly contentious period, but especially important for historical archaeology because it is partially dated on the synchronism between biblical texts related to Solomon's successor and son, Rehoboam (1 Kings –26 and 2 Chron.1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE.
The basal virgin sediment consists of sterile wadi sands.To help resolve these controversies, deeply stratified excavations to virgin soil were needed to date the full occupation span of KEN and measure the tempo and scale of metal production during the IA.Here, we report on the complete stratigraphic sequence at KEN from 2006 dated with a suite of 22 high-precision radiocarbon measurements and artifact data.A suite of 37 radiocarbon samples from our 2002 excavations was processed by accelerator laboratories in Oxford and Groningen and yielded early IA dates for the occupation of the site, between the end of the 12th c. 12:2–10), and Egyptian texts of the Levantine military campaign by Pharaoh Sheshonq (Shishak) I, who reigned 945–924 BCE (18).The campaign is mentioned in the HB and absolute dating evidence comes from Shishak's extensive triumphal topographical list related to his victories in Palestine at the temple of Amun at Karnak, Thebes (pls. The KEN excavations bring the early history of IA Edom into the realm of social interaction between 10th c. Although the GMM published 9 radiocarbon dates from the Heidelberg lab and we published 10 dates from Oxford and 27 dates from the Groningen labs, this sample was not substantial enough for some scholars (total of 46 dates) (12, 16) to accept the implications of this new dating framework for Edom.